When, durante 1420, Filippo Brunelleschi was nominated superintendent of the construction of the cupola of the Florentine cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, the lines along which the construction was esatto be carried out had already been determined by what had been done previously (Arnolfo, Talenti)
The diameter of the inner span (m. ) is close sicuro the maximum limit for any kind of masonry dome. From the times of the Tempio there had been giammai examples of cupolas of such size. Faith con these structures had been seriously undermined by the collapse, durante 1346, of the dome of Hagia Sophia durante Constantinople. Durante 1400 the Florentines had had esatto reinforce the structures of the Baptistery which had shown signs of giving way.
Instead of recuperating precedent techniques, Brunelleschi invented per technique based on his knowledge of the “way of building” of the Romans as well as medieval (eastern) examples which he put at the service of per new concept and new kinds of technical, cultural, aesthetic problems, involved mediante the realization of the cupola. Basically the construction of the dome depended on the use of verso building technique breviligne of avoiding any dangerous discontinuity in the masonry (27,000 tons) and which would be able preciso circumvent the enormous problems involved con constructing per traditional wooden armature of the necessary dimensions. Brunelleschi’s structure of bricks laid mediante herringbone courses consisted of raising the wall con rings, each containing vertical elements for bonding the successive ring. The cupola was thus built as verso self supporting growing form.
In their internal tension, the thrust and dynamic form (pointed arch and elliptical sector) engender per calculated equilibrium, per cupola that hovers and is suspended over the city, the result of the balance of all the forces
The dome is surprisingly modern: in this double shell, the lighter exterior cupola protects the inner cupola from the elements, while the two sistema together thanks to the powerful connecting ribs. The detachment from the figurative solutions of Gothic architecture is evident particularly on the outside in the refusal of multiple forces (free standing spires, etc.), sopra the rigor with which the convergence of the forces upwards is pursued, entrusting the formal solution puro a formidable synthesis of continuous lines and accessory surfaces resulting per unity and free from any need to adapt preciso the more articulated and minute design of the structure underneath.
The first powerful expression of per conscious synthesis of two cultural worlds, Greek and Gothic, the cupola can per the end be defined as verso delicate diaphragm stretched between an external and an internal space, a diaphragm between one space and another. The city is giammai longer verso framework marked by the emergence of vertical points of reference (towers and campanili): the cupola, sopra its size and form, stands out and dominates everything else. The towers and the campanili (including Giotto’s) all now relate preciso each other as per result of their relationship esatto the cupola which hovers between rooftops and sky at the center of the urban system and automatically become subordinate elements durante verso general plan.
The full meaning of this urban masterpiece, the cupola is beautifully expressed sopra Leon Battista Alberti’s splendid, synthetic definition con the context of the dedication of his https://datingranking.net/it/mature-dating-review/ treatise Della Prospetto puro Brunelleschi: “rising above the skies, ample onesto cover with its shadow all the Tuscan people”. “Rising above” on the one hand expresses the meaning of the tension sopra the generating line chosen for the ribs, on the other the fact that the cupola is not dominated by the universal space but creates per space of its own which establishes all rapports and measures with respect esatto itself. “Ample” expresses the fundamental qualification of distension and circularity of the hovering cupola, while on the other hand with “ample esatto” it immediately leads preciso the concept in which the size of this urban structure is seen per relation esatto the territory. Moreover, the contrast established between the two terms (“rising above” – “ample onesto”) expresses with marvelous conciseness the solution of all the forces, all the structures, all the equilibriums, of all the proportions both within itself and durante relationship preciso the city, all the technical and structural problems, con the absolute abstraction and sopra the tension of the line of its ciclocross section, etc. Lastly, Alberti’s words tensione the fact that the new formal dimensions also correspond preciso the new political dimension of the city.